Stem Cell

Umbilical cord blood collected at birth is a rich source of stem cells that can be used to treat diseases of the blood and immune system. Blood can be collected from the umbilical cord of a newborn baby shortly after birth. This does not hurt the baby or the mother in any way, and it is blood that would otherwise be discarded as biological waste along with the placenta (another rich source of stem cells) after the birth.

The umbilical cord blood contains haematopoietic stem cells – similar to those found in the bone marrow – and which can be used to generate red blood cells and cells of the immune system. Cord blood stem cells can be used to treat a range of blood disorders and immune system conditions such as leukaemia, anaemia and autoimmune diseases. These stem cells are used largely in the treatment of children but have also started being used in adults following chemotherapy treatment.

How are the cells processed and are they safe?
The umbilical cord is processed in the hospital according to the rules and regulation of the American Association of Tissue Banks (AATB). Approximately 4 weeks prior to a scheduled caesarean section, the mothers OB/GYN asks her if she would like to keep and store her unborn child’s umbilical cord for future use. If the mother declines then she is asked if she would like to donate the umbilical cord. If she agrees, she undergoes a review of her medical history, social history, and a blood test. If she is deemed an acceptable donor according to prevailing rules of the AATB, then at the time of her caesarean section an experienced technician will clamp the umbilical cord, take it to a clean room, and remove the contents of the umbilical cord and place it into a blood bag. The bag of umbilical cord blood is then delivered to the lab for processing. Once at the lab, a sample of the umbilical cord blood is sent to a 3rd party independent FDA registered lab for testing according to United States Pharmacopeia rule 71 (U.S.P. 71), which is a test for known communicable diseases. While that test is taking place the stem cells are then processed and removed from the red blood cell products. A sample of the finished stem cell product is then sent to a different 3rd party independent FDA registered lab for sterility testing. Only after both lab reports come back as “clean” and have passed the regulatory requirements, are the processed umbilical cord stem cells available for distribution.
Do you ever use an aborted fetus?
No, we only use the umbilical cord from a live healthy birth baby.
Is HLA matching necessary?
No, HLA matching is not necessary for the Liveyon product because HLA-DR, the component responsible for a non-HLA matched negative reaction, is below measurable amounts. Even in the 1990’s when HLA-DR extraction techniques were far less efficient than they are today, negative HLA-DR reactions were not commonly seen.
Is DNA testing necessary?
No, DNA testing is not necessary because the stem cells and mononucleated cells do NOT penetrate the nucleus of the recipients’ cells and thus do not pass on DNA. The ability of a stem cell to pass along DNA matter is a property of a stem cell when it is in the embryonic stage and is no longer possible after the 10th week of gestation. Umbilical cord stem cells are harvested between weeks 36 and 40.
The International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) says that the presence of CD90, CD105, and CD73 are necessary for the identification of stem cells, why do you only test for the presence of CD90?
The definition by the ISCT is for pure stem cells and not a heterogenous mix of stem cells and mononucleated cells that are used for umbilical cord stem cell therapies. It is also noted in literature that the presence of one or all the CD’s consistent with the presence of stem cells is an indicator of stem cells. The reason we chose to test for CD90 is because it is the most clinically relevant for our purposes. CD90 is implicated in axonal growth, T-cell activation, cell adhesion, cell migration, and cell extravasation while CD105 is implicated in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function and CD73 is implicated in tumor suppression.
Do Stem Cells duplicate themselves in the body?
No, stem cells do NOT duplicate themselves in the body. Stem cells DO have the ability to duplicate themselves in vitro, in culture in the lab, but they do NOT duplicate themselves in the body. This is a long-held myth that is now disproven.
Do Stem Cells cause cancer or cause cancer to grow?
No, the fact that stem cells do not duplicate themselves within the body is a major reason that stem cells do not proliferate nor cause cancer to grow. Multiple studies are being done around the world showing that stem cells can actually fight cancer and stop the growth of cancer cells. This research is ongoing and the exact effects of stem cells for the treatment of cancer is, as of yet, unknown.
Do allogeneic stem cells differentiate/change into new tissue in my body?
No, stem cells do NOT differentiate/change into new tissue in your body. Stem cells produce long-term effects by responding to signals from injured tissue. The stem cells work by inhibiting the inflammatory components that cause pain and damage to tissue and the mononucleated cells secrete growth factors, proteins, and cytokines that stimulate our own native tissue to repair and regenerate itself.
Are Umbilical Cord Stem cells from another person safe to put into my body?
Yes, allogeneic (taken from another person of the same species) cells are safe to put into your body. When the umbilical cord is processed, all the red blood cell components that could cause a negative reaction are removed. Also, the umbilical cord cells are naïve/immature and do NOT react the way a mature adult cell would act.
“Mesenchymal stem cells produce huge quantities of bio-molecules, some of which are immunosuppressive; MSC’s put up a curtain of molecules around themselves that allows donor (allogenic) MSC’s to be transplanted into a recipient, free from an immune response. (Immune privileged/Immune Masked)”
Arnold Caplan, PhD. Case Western Reserve University. Experimental and Molecular Medicine (2013) 45 Mesenchymal stem cells: environmentally responsive therapeutics for regenerative medicine
Are Umbilical Cord Cells the same as Amniotic fluid?
No, umbilical cells are LIVE NUCLEATED CELLS that contain stem cells that will continue to produce anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory components that optimize the local cellular environment. They also contain mononucleated cells that produce growth factors, proteins, and cytokines that stimulate our own tissue to regenerate itself. Because the cells are LIVE, they can continue to exert the cellular function for weeks and even months in the body.
Conversely, amniotic fluid/tissue must be processed in such a way that KILLS the live nucleated cells leaving a product that contains growth factors, proteins, and cytokines that will have an effect for several hours to a few days.
Are Live Nucleated Cells Important?
Yes, the presence of live nucleated cells means that the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory components from the MSC’s will continue to be produced for many weeks and months, optimizing the injured environment. At the same time, the growth factors, proteins, and cytokines produce by the mononucleated cells will stimulate our own endogenous tissue to repair and regenerate itself.
Are there other Stem Cell products that contain Live Nucleated Cells?
Yes, bone marrow aspirate and adipose derived stem cells also contain live nucleated cells.
Are all Live Nucleated Cells created equal?
No, live nucleated cells from umbilical cord blood are young, vibrant cells that have not been effected by age or disease whereas bone marrow aspirate and adipose derived stem cells are significantly older and potentially damaged by disease.
Does Age Matter?
Yes, age definitely matters. In Vitro research by the International Journal of Molecular Sciences has shown that while young, vibrant umbilical cord stem cells can duplicate themselves every 28 hours for up to 65 generations or more, 50+ year old bone marrow aspirate and adipose derived stem cells duplicate at a much slower rate of 3 to 5 days for an average of only 11 to 13 generations. Also of note is that older cells undergo senescence (aging) at a much faster rate than young, vibrant umbilical cord cells and older senescent cells produce less quantities and less effective growth factors, proteins, and cytokines.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 17986-18001; doi:10.3390/ijms140917986. International Journal of Molecular Sciences ISSN 1422-0067
How Do Umbilical Cord Stem Cells Actually Work?
When umbilical cord cells are placed into an environment of injured tissue, the stem cells go to work inhibiting the damaging inflammatory components and modulating the immune system. At the same time, the mononucleated cells produce growth factors that nourish damaged cells back to health and stimulate our own cells to regenerate themselves.